The two-phase iteration

Developing software for medical devices implies two special aspects:

  • Documentation becomes important. Regulations require a ton of documentation, and a failure to do so might hamper the market access of your medical device. Conclusion: documentation becomes a part of the definition of done and you have to get some distance from the second principle of the agile manifesto (favoring working software over comprehensive documentation). The problem is, developers in general hate documentation (but have all kind of justifications to make it appear as a conscious choice, such as “documentation is always outdated” or “just read the code”). But when you have to do something that you don’t like and there’s no way to get around it, I believe you should get at it and do it on a regular basis. Don’t postpone documentation until the end of the project, when people leave or are assigned to new endeavors, and three quarters of the knowledge has evaporated.
  • Leaving bugs is not an option. And an excellent technique for finding bugs is manual testing. In my best-effort projects as far as automated testing is concerned, we still find 7 bugs a day through manual testing. And some tests are just too complicated to be automated (example: recovery after a power outage, intrusion testing). Manual testing has a very direct consequence: at some point, you have to deliver a version, testers will test it and it will take time, and when they put their hands on the next version, they don’t want it crippled by regressions due to new developments. Manual testers don’t have the patience of a continuous integration system.

 

A good way to adjust to these constraints is to use two-phase iterations.Phase 1: build. Phase 2: stabilize.

Build & stabilize
Build & stabilize

To elaborate a bit more:

  • Phase 1: construction.
    • Build a product increment. In this phase, you take risks. You write that ambitious new feature. You refactor that awfully complex engine. You change the build system.
    • You maintain quality (automated tests, bug fixing), but it’s not your main concern. You might let bugs and broken tests pile up a little (but not too much).
    • Little manual testing occurs (only functional challenges by those who wrote the specs, weekly general regression testing), but testers prepare for the next phase by honing test procedures and test strategies (according to impact analysis).
    • The final days of the construction phase will be a little constrained. There has to be a feeling of deadline around this date. Everybody works hard to be on time.
    • The most concrete consequence of the end of the construction phase is that a stabilization branch for this iteration is created.
  • Phase 2: stabilization.
    • Finish the product increment.
      • Testers test.
      • Developers fix bugs and broken tests. They are not allowed to take risks on the stabilization branch.
      • Several versions are issued and tested until the last one meets quality standards (I like to set a low total known bugs threshold – more on this in a dedicated post).
    • Write the documentation. It’s a good time: after the rush, and while things are still fresh in everyone’s head. Write the mandatory one-shot documentation for the iteration (test report, formal reviews…). Update long-term documentation (e.g. architecture documents).
    • Prepare for the next iteration. Select the candidate user stories. Have functional people explain them to developers. Extract the requirements related to the user stories, make sure that evil details are taken into account (remember, at that time, specs should be ready. The months of talking and studying and analyzing features are over. If the spec is not ready, then the feature is not mature enough for this iteration. If you can’t write it down, you can’t code it). Developers and architects should throw their first design ideas one whiteboards and start negotiating solutions. Then formal planning occurs (detailed planning poker with tasks). Product Owners compare task estimates with personnel availability and estimated throughput, then choose which user stories will be part of the iteration, and which will not.

 

Two-phase iteration
Detailed activities inside the two-phase iteration

Practical considerations

  • Iteration size. Although Scrum advocates for 2 to 4 weeks iterations, for this kind of process, I’ve experimented with values between 4 and 8 and settled for 6 weeks. This seems to me a good compromise: big enough so that content matches iteration overhead (documentation, planning, manual test campaign), small enough to be manageable. Of course, this value works in my environment, you should try several and see what works for you.
  • Phase size. My biggest project started with a 2/3-1/3 proportion (that is, four weeks of construction and two weeks of stabilization). Then, as maintenance cost increased, I increased stabilization level to 12 days (leaving 18 for construction) and plan to increase it again soon. It may seem long, but in my usual environment it takes about 4 deliveries to get a software version of good enough quality. This is a key feature of the two-phase iteration: by adjusting the relative size of construction and stabilization, you have a built-in mechanism for regulating speed and quality. More on this in a dedicated article.
  • Be tough with construction end date. If a user story is not ready, then it’s going to ship in the next iteration (Of course, if everybody at system level waits for it, you may want to be (or be forced to be) a little flexible. But if that user story is so important, why did it slip until the end of the construction phase? Couldn’t it have been planned earlier? You should always have a buffer of user stories or technical tasks of lesser importance ready to be sacrificed if something important goes out of hand).
  • Be tough with quality at the end of stabilization. If the product is buggy, it’s not shippable. Immediate course of action is to fix it and ship it. The following construction phase will be smaller than usual, with less features. That’s a smaller problem than a buggy software – your users are more important than your bosses.
  • On the day stabilization phase begins, a stab branch should be created in the repository (named, for example, iteration_XX_stab). Why?
    • Dev on trunk/master: sometimes it is reasonable to allow a developer to start construction N+1 during stabilization N. Example: a huge refactoring with lots of impact, that should rather be performed when the change level on the code is lower (during stab). That developer should work on the trunk/master while everybody remains on the stab branch.
    • Psychological reasons: the fact that they have to switch from trunk/master to stab branch helps developers materialize the fact that activities will be different. The fact that it’s possible to perform minor tasks in the trunk helps keep the stab branch clean (bug fixing only!). For example: fix that bug in the stab branch the quick and dirty way to avoid unnecessary regressions, but merge the fix at once in the trunk, and then refactor it until the design doesn’t make you blush anymore.
    • Version maintenance. Imagine you have to fix a bug for the software version of iteration N is 3 months or 3 years from now: pick stab branch N just where you left it.
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Agile medical device system design

The Agile revolution has definitely transformed the way software is built, to such an extent that it has become mainstream because it just works better. There are several factors to such a success: empowerment that helps get the best out of the people; automation that reduces costs, cycle time and errors. But to me, the most powerful practice of the agile toolbox is the incremental product design that reduces risks at all levels:

  • Integration risk: you integrate sooner (all the time, in fact), so the long-dreaded integration phase of the eighties (that could last for years and often end in project failure) is an everyday, routine task.
  • User needs risk: by implementing the most important features first and putting them into the hands of end users ASAP, you gain field feedback on what the users really need and want. You decrease the risk of creating totally useless or partially usable feature (80% of features in software are said to be never or seldom used).
  • Projects risks: by finishing the product often and measuring the team velocity, you know your real project pace and can adjust to it. Your team’s average velocity of the last three iterations is a good predictor of the team’s pace until the end of the project. I’m a big fan of this down-to-earth wisdom of measuring what’s too complex to be predicted and changing course accordingly.

When working on medical device projects with my colleagues from the hardware, electronics, reagent or system teams, I’ve often wondered why they wouldn’t use iterative development to their advantage. The counter arguments they gave me usually were the following:

  • Our iterations are too long. When designing hardware, the time needed to finish plans, order parts all over the world and receive them, test them and send them back for defects once in a while, assemble them, is ridiculously long – up to six months. The same with electronics if suppliers are expected to design and produce boards. Reagent teams may perform stability tests that last for years.
  • Our iterations cost too much. Big hardware prototypes can cost the price of several brand-new cars. Moulds are awfully expensive. Reagent production lines are a luxury item. Physical stuff cannot just be made and destroyed without a sizeable monetary footprint.

These hardships entice specialists to optimize their business with a typical waterfall process: long requirements elicitation, one-shot production of what they think should be made, oops we forgot something, some supplier is late, schedule is doomed. Local optimization is the enemy of the global optimization endeavor that is a systems project. I believe systems design must be iterative and thought as such from the very start.

 

System iterations
Hardware V1 and electronics V2 are combined with embedded software V5 to build embedded system V3. After some integration testing, embedded system V3 is combined with non-embedded software V6 and reagents V1 to perform the first round of tests of the complete system. This will lead to new insights and subsequent changes in the next iterations of all sub-components – a long time before the end of the project.

 

Software item iterations are likely to be always shorter. But that doesn’t mean that other specialties can’t plan iterations too. Some techniques that could be used to make it possible:

  • First hardware and electronics iterations can be made with prototyping material (for example: B&R automation products) that has unrealistic production cost or size but that allows fast creation of first versions. If first tests prove that the design is good, next iterations can focus on production cost, maintainability, assembly lines, multi-sourcing of providers, while the overall systems keeps on its journey.
  • Hardware stubs. First iterations can also use the technique we software developers know as stubs. For example, the first version of an automated and temperature-regulated drawer for reagent storage could be made without temperature regulation at all, and without automation (only fixed-position reagents, hard-coded in the code or loaded in the database via a script).
  • Design and usability are a big concern for marketing departments and regulators as well. I would suggest to meet your end-users ASAP by quickly manufacturing prototypes of all external interfaces. For example, you can use 3D printers or cardboard models or foam models. Have end-user representatives execute typical usage scenarios with it. What do they think? I remember using this technique for a device with a bar-code reader: we printed a 3D version of the casing in a matter of days only to realize that the bar-code reader was positioned in such a way that the end user would have to almost break its wrist to use it. So we moved it to the opposite very easily (no need to redesign all the internal parts of the device, no constraints!).
  • Reagents design is complex and slow. Help these guys by giving them ASAP a system prototype to test their stuff. They don’t care about chassis production cost, cybersecurity or electronic components triple-sourcing. They just need good biological performance.
  • Assembling subsystems is difficult. Something that has never been tested never works. So be sure to plan an integration and system debugging session every time you produce a system iteration, before downstream activities (such as biological performance tuning) can start.
  • As explained by the eXtreme Manufacturing movement, to plan for iterative, incremental system design, the priority would be to think carefully about the internal interfaces of the system and divide it into subsystems. Subsystems can evolve independently as long as they respect the interfaces – thus achieving fast-paced design.

 

ScrumInc eXtreme Manufacturing car
The modules that make up an extreme manufacturing build party at ScrumInc

This is no easy task. But a necessary one to tackle the top risks of a medical device project: biological risk and registration risk.

  • You should produce as fast as you can a functional system to tackle the biological risk – living matter is so unpredictable that you are better off observing how it behaves (just as project dynamics, by the way).
  • And once you have a complete system able to perform its biological task (stripped out of the bells and whistles), i.e. once you have tackled the biological risk, consider handling the registration risk by registering this minimalistic system. This will take lots of time (typically 2 years in China). The registration teams should be able to define the contour of a system that could be registered officially all over the world, but that you probably won’t sell (it’s ugly, it can’t be maintained, it has no advanced software features, but yes it performs its core biological mission pretty well). Meanwhile, you will prepare a second version with all the nice-to-have features that will be registered as a simple product evolution, with lower risk and delay, and that might well end up being available on the market little time after the first version is ready.

Lean Startup thinking promotes trying your concept with a Minimal Viable Product that you put into the hands of your end-users. Product registration authorities are a kind of VIP end-user. Maybe you should plan you entire project plan to build them a dedicated MVP to address the registration risk right after the biological risk is under control.